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Technology sharing of combi...
In the last digital twin article, we introduced the application cases of digital twin technology and 5G field network in different industries, including construction machinery manufacturing, smart mines, smart buildings, and smart medical care. Today, let's further explain the technical details of the combination of digital twin technology and 5G industry communication network, and discover how China Mobile is working on it. First, let's recall the 5G industry communication network.The industry field network is a communication and management technology for data interoperability, and is used between field devices, external devices and business platforms. The concept of Proximity Network (literally translated as Proximity Network) was first proposed in the ISO.23247 digital twin standard in 2013. China Mobile and industry partners have jointly improved the concept and overall solution of the 5G industry communication network. Below we will start sharing industry application cases. China Mobile Cube 365 Digital Twin 5G+ industry communication network Architecture In response to the technological wave brought by digital twin technology, China Mobile proposed the Cube 365 5G+ industry communication network architecture. The 3-6-5 numbers have special meanings in the architecture: A.3 represents the three-layer architecture of the Digital Twin 5G+ industry communication network, including the entity layer, the capability layer, and the application layer. B.6 contains two layers of meaning. The first layer refers to six network development trends, including flattening, wireless, IP-based, intelligent, controllable, and refined. The second layer of meaning refers to the six technical dimensions of the industry communication network, including sensing, communication, arithmetic, number, wisdom, and use. C.5 represents five connection technologies for the digital twin industry communication network, namely 5G+new passive communication, 5G+new short-range communication, 5G+deterministic transmission, 5G+high-precision positioning, 5G and medium and low speed communication. In this architecture, sense and communication correspond to the entity layer, calculation, number, and intelligence correspond to the capability layer, and use corresponds to the application layer. The entire Cube 365 Digital Twin 5G+ industry communication network Architecture is developing towards a flat, wireless, IP-based, intelligent, controllable, and precise development direction. A.Three-layer architecture of the Digital Twin 5G+ industry communication network, including the entity layer, the capability layer, and the application layer. a.The Entity Layer: Data collection entities and data transmission entities provide sensing and communication capabilities. Data collection entities include sensors, cameras, robotic arms, passive IoT labels and other industrial on-site production and management physical terminals, which can collect environmental data such as temperature and dust, production line equipment operation data, material information and location data, and equipment defects. These raw data materials reflect the operation of the physical world. With data transmission entities, including new passive, new short-range, deterministic transmission, medium and low-speed transmission, high-precision positioning, etc., the connection between the northbound transmission of perception data and the southbound transmission of control commands is completed. b.The Capability Layer: The capability layer provides three advantages of computing, data and intelligence for the lower-layer physical entities and upper-layer applications through a variety of technologies, including edge computing, protocol adaptation, and AI. As a result, data integration, simulation analysis, intelligent processing, twin model construction and fusion can be realized. c.The Application Layer: The upper application layer can provide more efficient and convenient network and business life cycle management services for industry applications through technologies such as digital twins, which is a direct interface connecting to users. B.Six network development trends of the Digital Twin 5G+ industry communication network, including flattening, wireless, IP-based, intelligent, controllable, and refined. a.Flattening: The new network architecture goes flattening. The traditional network presents very fragmented characteristics: the field network structure is complex, and there are various protocols, including industrial bus protocols, industrial communication protocols and industrial wireless protocols; there are also various technologies, including Zigbee, UWB etc. At the same time, in order to collect and process data of different protocols in the traditional network, the information system also presents like chimney type. To solve this problem, the flattening of the new network architecture using data twinning technology is conducive to the normalized management of data, so that data can be collected and transmitted according to a unified protocol. b.Wireless: The new network architecture goes wireless. According to statistics, in the global industrial network market share in 2020, wired accounts for 94% and wireless accounts for 6%. As the need for devices to go wireless gradually increased, wireless networks began to replace wired networks. However, while the wireless replacement of wired brings convenience, it also introduces more unreliable factors, causing enterprises to be more cautious about introducing wireless communication in the production process. The Digital Twin 5G+ industry communication network is expected to combine the advantages of the two, and truly bring about a wireless change in the network connection in the production field. c.IP-based: The new network architecture becomes IP-based. Traditional industrial networks are mostly point-to-point 2 layer communications, making it difficult to achieve data traceability, flexible routing, and refined management. However, today's industrial production requires a more flexible, stable and secure network, which brings an urgent need for network IP transformation. IPv6 has abundant address resources and can assign IP addresses to each network device. IPv6 also provides management capabilities for traffic and services, facilitating network SLA assurance. d.Intelligent: The new network architecture goes intelligent. The current intelligent analysis capabilities mainly rely on cloud platforms. However, some industrial scenarios, such as safe production and industrial quality inspection, require high bandwidth, low latency, and data privacy. Various industries are now in great need of field-level intelligent analysis and processing of key data and services, thereby improving business response speed and ensuring business continuity. By applying edge intelligence technology, more nearby processing on industrial gateways can be realized, such as predictive maintenance, fault detection, face recognition, industrial quality inspection and other intelligent services. e.Controllable: The new network architecture becomes more controllable. The traditional network management system has not been extended to the field network, so it cannot sense the network parameters on the client side in real time. Now, it is necessary to realize the visibility, management and control of the field network, equipment and business. By deploying quality probes on the terminal side, we can provide monitoring, analysis and alarming of key information such as device status, network coverage, and service quality at the field level, which effectively compensates for the lack of network management data and makes the terminal side no longer a black box. All of these help to quickly locate and delimit faults and ensure network awareness of on-site customers. f.Refined: The equipment control becomes more refined. With the development of 5G and deterministic network technology, network latency and instability are greatly improved, making it possible to deploy devices in a distributed manner and support centralized management of control. In scenarios such as remote equipment operation and equipment collaborative operation, on-site data is collected and transmitted through the 5G network. Based on the relevant software, the factory can realize industrial control and remote precise control of equipment. C.Five connection technologies of the Digital Twin 5G+ industry communication network, namely 5G+ new passive communication, 5G+ new short-range communication, 5G+ deterministic transmission, 5G+ high-precision indoor positioning, 5G and medium and low speed communication. a.5G+ new passive communication: Passive IoT uses the principle of electromagnetic induction and signal reflection to carry out non-contact data communication through the built-in tag of the item. It consists of three parts: reader, tag and application system: The reader emits and receives reflected electromagnetic waves to the tag; The label is tightly bound to the item under test. Passive tags do not require external power supply or built-in batteries, and rely on the electromagnetic waves emitted by the reader to start and reflect signals to realize data transmission; The application system controls the transceiver to send and receive, and process the data reported by the tag. The traditional passive IoT reader adopts a full-duplex architecture with integrated transceiver, which transmits excitation signals and receives reflected signals at the same time. This has strong system self-interference and different system mutual interference, resulting in short reading and writing distance, low recognition accuracy, and difficult equipment management. The new passive IoT system uses a separate architecture to solve the problems of serious self-interference and difficult network deployment in the traditional integrated architecture. It can realize continuous coverage of passive system network to meet various needs, such as automatic inventory of assets, fine management of materials and intelligent logistics tracking. The new passive communication provides more efficient connection service capabilities through the separation of transceivers. After the transceiver is separated, the new passive IoT system divides the reader into two devices: the exciter and the receiver, and solves the interference problem through physical separation, which can not only increase the communication distance, improve the recognition rate of items, but also reduce the the complexity of device deployment and RD costs. The combination of the new passive IoT system with 5G and other cellular communication technologies will be more conducive to network deployment, which will reduce network deployment costs and enhance OM management. Through the built-in module of the passive IoT exciter and the combination of the passive IoT receiver and the base station, it can not only achieve indoor continuous coverage for large warehouses, but also realize co-management and operation and maintenance with the base station, enhancing the performance of the passive IoT system. At the same time, the cellular network can further support passive IoT technology. The base station's multi-antenna beamforming, new air interface waveform and coding technologies borrowed from cellular communication are expected to further increase the communication distance and enable passive IoT technology to be applied to outdoor scenarios. b.5G+ new short-range communication Short-range wireless communication generally refers to providing point-to-point wireless communication in a small area (usually less than 100 meters). It is a typical industrial field network network, mainly used for small-scale interconnection between devices, and has the advantages of simple deployment and low cost. Facing the intelligent manufacturing scenario, China Mobile and its partners have jointly realized the innovative application of 5G + Spark-link fusion communication technology in motor synchronous control. In the traditional solution, wired connections must be used between the servo drives to meet the microsecond-level delay requirements for the synchronization of gear speeds. But now through innovation, multiple sets of servo servers can be replaced by industrial cables with a short distance from Spark-link, and the protocol can be transformed at the basic service layer of Spark-link communication nodes. It can not only ensure the communication requirements of microsecond-level delay between servo drives, but also actively deliver QoS policies such as business priority and delay jitter management through 5G cloud applications. By adjusting short-distance air interface resources in real time, the transmission reliability of on-site control data flow can be improved, thereby realizing higher-level flexible manufacturing. c.5G+ deterministic transmission The industry communication network deterministic network refers to the network that can guarantee the deterministic bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss rate of services. The determinism here means that the indicators can be expected, such as the deterministic delay of 10ms, and the jitter of the delay is 10s. The need for deterministic networks is widespread in industrial communications. Due to the large number and complexity of communication protocol standards, the compatibility with each other is very weak.This has led to closed technologies and poor reusability, which has restricted the development of industrial network interconnection. The advent of 5G technology offers new options. 5G and TSN/TAN solve the deterministic problem between data transport layers. In order to meet the needs of the wireless access network to support the deterministic industrial network interconnection using TSN technology, 3GPP R16 has considered and defined the architecture of the 5G system as a TSN logical bridge to complete the networking and interconnection with the TSN network. Use 5G to extend the coverage of the existing TSN network of the field network. Later, in order to combine the wired and wireless deterministic technology, simplify the system architecture and promote the development of the industry, the industry proposed the deterministic technology of wired local area network Time Aware Network (TAN) technology. It provides deterministic transport services for industry applications in a lightweight, plug-and-play manner. The integration of 5G technology and TAN will further expand the application fields and scenarios of TAN. d.5G+ high-precision indoor positioning At present, there are three main technical directions in the industry for positioning needs. One is UWB positioning, which transmits data by sending and receiving extremely narrow pulses with sub-nanosecond or picosecond pulses, resulting in GHz-order bandwidths in the frequency domain. The second is the Bluetooth angle positioning, which is based on the angle positioning of the antenna array (AoA/AoD), which is a high-precision positioning scheme based on the angle measurement between the received and sent signals. The third is the co-deployment method of positioning base stations and 5G distributed pico base stations. In the traditional 5G positioning method, most algorithms such as RTT, AOA/AOD, TDOA rely on the measured time, angle and other information for calculation. There are high requirements for chip processing time, angle measurement accuracy and domain synchronization accuracy. In the future, 5G-based positioning technology will be explored to achieve a high-precision positioning solution under the condition of limited bandwidth and without affecting existing services. e.5G and medium and low speed communication Medium and low-speed networks are IoT connections with a downlink transmission rate of less than 10Mbps and an uplink transmission rate of less than 5Mbps. In order to meet the development needs of IoT applications, medium and low-speed network technologies with a variety of network standards have emerged. Currently, they have been widely used, including NB-IoT, Cat. LoRa and Sigfox et al. Specifically, NB-IoT meets the needs of low-power wide-area coverage services in terms of coverage, power consumption, and transmission rate, and is suitable for low-speed IoT applications that require long-distancetransmission, small amount of communication data, and low latency requirements. Cat.1 technology is suitable for services that require high mobility and speed, a large amount of data, and a voice function. LoRa is a representative of wide-area low-power technology that uses unlicensed spectrum. Compared with NB-IoT, LTE Cat.1 and other technologies that use licensed frequency bands, its reliability and credibility are relatively weak. In particular, there are gaps in identity credential security, authentication mechanism, and key management. Zigbee and BLE are limited by limited coverage, and it is difficult to meet those IoT applications that require long-distance transmission, small amount of communication data, and long-term battery power supply. Industry communication network technology is an important technical realization of digital twin network connection, and it is the last hundred meters between field networks and equipment in industrial, medical, transportation and other scenarios. Here, we call on industry enterprises to work together with China Mobile in the field of 5G+ industry communication network to jointly promote the digital and intelligent transformation of vertical industries. Co-authors: Research Institute of Internet of Things Technology and Application of China Mobile Communications Co., Ltd., Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., Beijing Ziguang Zhanrui Technology Co., Ltd., H3C Technology Co., Ltd., Xuzhou Heavy Machinery Group Co., Ltd., Shougang Group, Nanjing Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Baosight Software, Baosight Software, MediaTek Inc.
Mar.31.2022 MORE
Carbon neutral path analysi...
Controlling global warming is in the common interest of all mankind. More and more economies have proposed the vision of a carbon-free future and set the goal of carbon neutrality. Telecom business is an important initiator and participant in the development of global technology and industry. On the one hand, operators not only have a large space for emission reduction, but also can give full play to their ict advantages and digital service capabilities to enable traditional industries to achieve green transformation. On the other hand, the layout of carbon neutrality is related to the long-term development of telecom operators. Currently, overseas trade attaches great importance to the carbon emission standards of partners, and the process of carbon neutrality of enterprises directly affects the participation of global trade. As a result, carbon neutrality has become a key deployment goal for global operators. ATT, for example, has reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 37% in 2020 from 2015 through its Solutions program, which enables business customers to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 1 billion tons by 2035. Telefonica avoided 9.5 million tons of carbon emissions in 2020, three times as much as in 2019, by providing these services. Other operators, including Verizon, Vodafone, Orange, BT, NTT, KDDI, KT, SKT have set a clear carbon neutral goals and implementation plan. As the European Union and the United States started carbon neutrality or carbon emissions earlier, operators in Europe and the United States are more perfect in the top-level design of carbon neutrality planning system, realizing carbon neutrality earlier than operators in Asia, and achieving more significant phased implementation results. Development Path Analysis International operators to promote the implementation of carbon neutral achieved good results, has been clear about the main charges dry enterprise around carbon neutral environment and energy vision, formed a relatively perfect, systematic framework of guidelines, including the design, the middle layer to the upper target strategy and innovation as well as the underlying organizational guarantee and publicity system effective implementation. 1.Set scientific emission reduction targets, progress and measurement methods. According to the internationally accepted carbon accounting method, in addition to setting a clear net zero emission target, international operators also adopt multi-dimensional measurement and evaluation based on stage target setting, energy efficiency in specific fields and carbon emission intensity indicators. Vodafone and Verizon use carbon emissions generated per petabyte of mobile data and per terabyte of network data as carbon intensity indicators. 2.Develop innovative new environmental and energy technologies to reduce emissions. Network equipment, IDC room and enterprise buildings are heavy energy consumers of operators and the most important areas of energy conservation and emission reduction. In addition to some conventional methods to improve energy efficiency, such as installing energy-saving equipment and optimizing cooling systems, international leading operators actively layout and make breakthroughs in innovative research and application of new energy-saving technologies. NTT has launched the IOWN program to integrate optical technology into signal processing research and development to build the communications infrastructure of the future by breaking through current technological limitations and dramatically reducing the power consumption of computers and networks. 3.Actively cooperate with upstream and downstream of the industrial chain to build green ecology. On the one hand, international operators insist on green procurement regulations of suppliers and require their cooperation and commitment to relevant emission reduction targets. BT, for example, has 12 major suppliers that have a clause in their commercial contracts that commits them to measurable carbon reductions. 4.Product design and innovation to increase resource recycling. It is a key measure for international leading operators to promote resource conservation to develop circular economy and build a system of resource recycling and waste material recycling. In order to get rid of the traditional linear economy and reduce the consumption and use of resources, 0range has moved the consideration of resource consumption and waste treatment to the stage of product development and design, so as to realize energy conservation and emission reduction from the source. It has set the development goal of 100% ecological design for 0range brand products by 2025. 5.Promote the purchase and self-investment development of renewable energy. Saving 300 tonnes of plastic electricity for every 100 million SIM cards is the single biggest contributor to telecom operators' carbon emissions, so leading international operators have identified support for renewable energy and the transition to a greener grid as key factors for achieving carbon neutrality in the future. 6.To expand sustainable green financing channels in the form of bonds, in order to raise more funds for the purchase and development of new energy and the rd and promotion of energy-saving and emissions-reduction technologies, more and more international operators have joined the ranks of green bond issuance and established sustainable financing channels for green development through unified issuance of green bonds. Verizon was the first U.S. telecom company to issue green bonds, fully allocating nearly $1 billion of net proceeds from the first tranche in 2020 and issuing a third tranche of $1 billion in September 2021. 7.The management organization and mechanism guarantee suitable for carbon neutrality strategy. Refers to the negotiable securities issued by the issuer in accordance with the law to raise funds to support green industry and repay the principal and interest according to the agreement. The establishment of a high-level management organization to guide the green development strategic planning or plan, and the implementation of publicity and training at the lower level are the basic guarantee for the effective implementation of carbon neutrality for international operators. In terms of organizational support, KDDI has incorporated environmental sustainability into its business operations and established an environmental management system (EMS) centered on an environmental subcommittee. Suggestions for Telecom Operators Drawing on the rich experience of leading international operators, Chinese operators should not only take the research and implementation of carbon neutrality as necessary to fulfill their social responsibilities, but also become the internal driving force to achieve their own efficient and sustainable development, and pay attention to it. 1.Target formulation: carbon emission targets in three areas should be calculated according to the internationally accepted carbon accounting methods, and emission reduction measures should be deployed in a targeted manner. Several phased emission reduction targets and emission reduction targets in specific fields should be designed and formulated, and corresponding effective assessment mechanisms should be matched to stimulate the realization of the targets. 2.Implementation strategy: referring to the ideas of international operators, carbon neutral development path should start from two general directions. One is multi-field and multi-path reduction of carbon emissions. In the emission reduction of network equipment, IDC, buildings and other large energy consumption households, energy saving technology innovation should be strengthened, and efforts should be made to break through the limitations of current technology to achieve technological energy saving; At the same time, pay attention to the development of circular economy and build a green ecology of industrial development. Second, promote the development and application of renewable energy. On the basis of their own energy conservation and emission reduction, operators should learn from international operators to achieve carbon neutrality by purchasing power through long-term agreements, investing in green energy, and purchasing environmental rights and interests. Actively use green financing means to obtain sustainable green project input. 3.Mechanism guarantee: the importance of carbon neutrality should match the high-level leadership organization, and the overall management of strategic planning, implementation plan and effect evaluation should be carried out. Finally, it is necessary to ensure the internal consensus on the implementation process of carbon neutral development, do a good job in publicizing policies and sharing knowledge among employees, and build a low-carbon culture. Reference: China Mobile
Mar.31.2022 MORE
Key security and risk manag...
Security and risk management leaders must address seven trends to protect the expanding digital footprint of modern enterprise organizations from new threats in 2022 and beyond, Gartner said. Peter Firstbrook, research vice president at Gartner, said: Enterprise organizations around the world are facing sophisticated ransomware attacks, attacks on digital supply chains and deep vulnerabilities. The pandemic has accelerated the development of hybrid work models and the move to the cloud, posing a challenge for chief information security officers (CISO) : how to protect increasingly decentralized organizations while addressing the shortage of senior security personnel. These challenges have led to three general trends influencing cybersecurity practice : (1) new responses to complex threats; (2) Evolution and reconstruction of safety practices; (3) A rethinking of technology. The following trends will have a broad impact on the industry in all three areas. Trend 1: The attack surface expands The scope of corporate attack is expanding. Risks posed by the use of net-physical systems and the Internet of Things, open source code, cloud applications, complex digital supply chains, social media, and more expose organizations to attacks beyond their controllable assets. Organizations must adopt a more advanced approach to managing a wider range of security risks than traditional security monitoring, detection, and response. Digital Risk Protection Services (DRPS), External Attack Surface Management (EASM) technology and Network Asset Attack Surface Management (CAASM) will help ciOs visualize internal and external business systems and automatically detect security breaches. Trend 2: Digital supply chain risk Cybercriminals have found that hacking digital supply chains can be highly rewarding. Expect more threats as vulnerabilities like Log4j spread through the supply chain. Gartner predicts that 45 percent of organizations worldwide will suffer from software supply chain attacks by 2025, a threefold increase from 2021. To reduce digital supply chain risk, organizations need to adopt new responses, including more deliberate, risk-based vendor/partner segmentation and scoring, requirements for proof of security controls and best practices, a shift to flexible thinking, and efforts to stay ahead of upcoming regulations. Trend 3: Identity threat detection and response Savvy threat originators are aggressively targeting identity and access management (IAM) infrastructure through abuse of evidence. Gartner has coined the term Identity Threat Detection and Response (ITDR) to describe a collection of tools and best practices for securing identity systems. Organizations have put a lot of effort into improving IAM capabilities, but most of that effort is focused on improving user authentication technology, which actually expands the vulnerability of a fundamental part of the cybersecurity infrastructure, Firstbrook said.ITDR tools can help protect identity systems, detect when they have been compromised, and take effective remedial action. Trend 4: Distributed decision making As the network security needs and expectations of enterprises mature, executives need more agile security measures as the attack surface expands. Therefore, in order to meet the scope, scale, and complexity of digital businesses, cybersecurity decisions, responsibilities, and accountability systems need to be distributed across the organization, avoiding centralized functions. The role of the CHIEF information security officer has shifted from being a technical domain specialist to an executive risk manager, Firstbrook said. By 2025, a single, centralized network security function will not be able to meet the needs of digital enterprise organizations. Cios must rediscover their role in helping boards, ceos and other business leaders make informed risk decisions. Trend 5: Beyond safety awareness training Many data breaches are still caused by human error, proving that traditional security awareness training methods are ineffective. Advanced organizations are investing in holistic safety behavior and culture programs (SBCP) to replace outdated compliance centric safety awareness campaigns. The overall safety behavior and culture program focuses on fostering new ways of thinking and behavior that lead to safer working practices throughout the organization. Trend 6: Vendor consolidation Security technology convergence is accelerating, driven by the need to reduce complexity, reduce administrative overhead, and improve effectiveness. New platform strategies such as Extended Detection and Response (XDR), Secure Service Edge (SSE) and Cloud Native Application Protection Platform (CNAPP) are accelerating the benefits of converged solutions. For example, Gartner predicts that 30% of enterprises will adopt the same vendor's Cloud Secure Network Gateway (SWG), Cloud Access Security Agent (CASB), Zero-trust Network Access (ZTNA), and branch firewall as a Service (FWaaS) capabilities by 2024. The integration of safety features will reduce total cost of ownership and improve long-term operational efficiency, thereby improving overall safety. Trend 7: Network security grid The trend toward consolidation of security products is driving the integration of security architecture components, but organizations still need to define unified security policies, enable workflows, and exchange data between integrated solutions. The Network Security Grid Architecture (CSMA) helps provide a common, integrated security architecture and posture to secure all on-premise, data center, and cloud assets. The major cybersecurity trends reported by Gartner do not exist in isolation, but are interdependent and reinforcing, Firstbrook said. Together, they will help ciOs drive the evolution of their roles to meet future security and risk management challenges and continue to elevate their standing within the enterprise organization.
Mar.31.2022 MORE

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